The role of ER alpha and ER beta expressed by phytoestrogen are expressed in cardiovascular protection and cancer protection. ER alpha and ER beta signal in opposite ways with ER beta acting as cancer protection. In the investigation of MCF-7 (human estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer cells) it was found that phytoestrogen like resveratrol, quercetin and genistein inhibited the cellular proliferation.
Phytoestrogen (apigenin, quercetin, genistein) bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and appear to inhibit the breast cell cancer including HER positive. Some studies show that high dose of apigenin does not display estrogen like activity and suggest to suppress 17 alpha estradiol. Phytoestrogene like pinoresional (found in virgin olive oil) was found to be pro oxidant, antiproliferative, antitumor and acts as a chemopreventative compound. Another phytoestrogen like Arctigenin (lignin from Arctium lappa) helps with menopausal symptoms, heart disease and bone benefits. Studies show that arctigenin exhibit anti cancerous effects by up steam signaling pathways in MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) with inhibiting NF-k, MAPK (ERK1/2 and Jnk ½) regardless of ER expression.
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